This division has the responsibility of collecting and conserving both orthodox (cold storage) and recalcitrant germplasm (Field genebank and in-vitro conservation) in the best possible condition and make them available to users. The activities the division undertakes include Collecting, Characterisation, Evaluation, Conservation, Regeneration, Documentation, Distribution of germplasm. The division has four sections.

Sections under the Plant Genetic Conservation Division
Seed genebank : The seed genebank conserves orthodox (i.e. seeds which can be dried to a low moisture content of 4-7%) germplasm at +5ºC for medium-term and -20°C for long-term in deep freezers. These orthodox germplasm comprises of cereals, vegetables and legumes. The section undertakes activities such as germplasm acquisition, germplasm registration, seed processing, viability testing and monitoring, regeneration, documentation and germplasm distribution.

Field genebank: The section conserves recalcitrant germplasm under field conditions. These germplasm include root and tuber crops, tree crops, spices and medicinal plants. The tree crop conservation area  constitutes both indigenous and exotic tree crops.

In-vitro genebank: This section conserves parts of plants using test tubes in artificial media, under controlled environments, normally in sterile conditions. This is done to produce disease-free plantlets of root and tuber crops and other crop species. The section develops various protocols for crops.

In-vitro Conservation: To produce disease-free plantlets of root and tuber crops and the development of various protocols for free crops.

Farm management: The section is responsible for the maintenance of the plantations and research fields of the genebank.